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Information

hemp/canabis activists

legalize it and i'll advertise it: discussions of all aspects of the canabis legalization issue. lets talk about medicinal use as well as full legalization issues.

Members: 261
Latest Activity: May 21

Dreadlocks Discussion Forum

Ganja in my Garden!!Help please

Started by SillyWalkingMinister. Last reply by Marcellus Wallace Oct 24, 2012. 26 Replies

Well, I just returned home today from a long trip up north... Have been neglecting garden unfortunately partly cz of work schedule and also because of the soaring heat...But today I found…Continue

Tags: marijuana, weed, ganja

Trichomes, the miracle lock accelerator??

Started by Chii Rising Feb 19, 2012. 0 Replies

I think the fresh, raw oils (trichomes) of flowering cannabis plants are the miracle dreadlock accelerators. When I combed my first set of dreadlocks out, I noticed that they were much, much more…Continue

Tags: locking, dreadlock, cannabis, raw

Cannabis, the cure for...a LOT of things.

Started by Jon. Last reply by Chii Rising Feb 19, 2012. 3 Replies

This is a video entitled "Cannabis Cures Cancer: 'Run from the cure'" It's a few years old and about 50 mins long so watch it when you're bored, making smoking some bud.PS. Will probably make you mad…Continue

Tags: cancer, weed, pot, cannabis

alternative intake

Started by aakifa. Last reply by Chii Rising Feb 19, 2012. 12 Replies

i always thought itd be better to take in hemp in tea form or food. That way you could avoid inhaling the smoke end of it. im all for it. just dont wana smoke it.

Comment Wall

Comment

You need to be a member of hemp/canabis activists to add comments!

Comment by Stacie Leigh on October 19, 2009 at 1:11pm
Come on..
If all these people that are against the use, smoked one joint of good stuff, they'd leagalize it!!
Comment by Spider Feet on October 13, 2009 at 4:03am
So I've been reading some anti-marijuana sites that list the 'negatives' of marijuana use. Many of these negatives are caused by it being illegal. Most if not all being illogical or plain misinformation.

I think one of the most interesting ones is that it lowers inhibitions...All I can think is "Yeah that is the general idea..." They all say that this lowered inhibitions can lead to sexual debauchery in teens.....Seriously? How can that be blamed on the drug. it's called hormones, they are going to fuck like rabbits weather there there are drugs involved or not....
Comment by shaun saunders on October 13, 2009 at 3:34am
you ask people why its illegal what do they say "government wants you to be safe" like chris rock said the government doesnt give a fuck about you, you can go get fucken wasted which in the long run is gonna kill more brain cells then marijuana you can buy as many packets of cigarettes you like thatll give u all kinds of fucked up shit and you can buy prescription drugs thatll fuck you up more then weed so why is weed illegal and tobacco not? coz tobacco is alot harder then marijuana to grow not everyone can just plant a tobacco plant in there back yard and itll grow but a marijuana plant will, because of this the government cant regulate it and make a profit off its use so thats why its illegal dont expect it to change anytime soon either unless they grow there own and sell it themselves
Comment by Iain on October 11, 2009 at 4:52pm
It really is disturbing the propaganda surrounding weed that has made it illegal for so long, this bullshit should have ended long ago, this has failed about as bad as the liquor prohibition.
Comment by jasmine jenae. on October 11, 2009 at 1:35am
we all just need to rally together. potheads scattered across the country are too hard to organize.
we need to find someone to point out to our wonderful government :cough, cough: about how much fucking money the legalization of marijuana would bring in. how big is this nation's deficit now?! i dont even wanna know, what i do wanna know is how much money this country could pull in and get back into circulation if they would just utilize it. it would do wonders for the economy.
capitalize.
plus, if the u.s. is high & green, maybe we wont be the assholes of the world anymore.
sounds good to me.
Comment by Nathan Warren on October 6, 2009 at 3:57pm
i know a group in ga trying to get marijuana legalized. theyre called green gwinnett.
Comment by Denea on October 6, 2009 at 3:01pm
Ok this is a long one but every word is worth reading, this kind of stuff fascinates me.

Endocannabinoids; for all you other nerds out there

Endocannabinoids: Multi-scaled, Global

Homeostatic Regulators of Cells and

Society

Robert Melamede

Biology Department and Bioenergetics Institute

University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO

rmelamed@uccs.edu

Living systems are far from equilibrium open systems that exhibit many scales of emergent behavior. They may be

abstractly viewed as a complex weave of dissipative structures that maintain organization by passing electrons from

reduced hydrocarbons to oxygen. Free radicals are unavoidable byproducts of biological electron flow. Due to their

highly reactive chemical properties, free radicals modify all classes of biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids,

nucleic acids, and proteins). As a result, free radicals are destructive. The generally disruptive nature of free radicals

makes them the "friction of life". As such, they are believed to be the etiological agents behind age related illnesses

such as cardiovascular, immunological, and neurological diseases, cancer, and ageing itself.

Free radicals also play a critical constructive role in living systems. From a thermodynamic perspective, life can only

exist if a living system takes in sufficient negative entropy from its environment to overcome the obligatory increase in

entropy that would result if the system could not appropriately exchange mass, energy and information with its

environment. Free radicals are generated in response to perturbations in the relationship between a living system and its

environment. However, evolution has selected for biological response systems to free radicals so that the cellular

biochemistry can adapt environmental perturbations by modifying cellular gene expression and biochemistry.

Endocannabinoids are marijuana-like compounds that have their origins hundreds of millions of years in the

evolutionary past. They serve as fundamental modulators of energy homeostasis in many multi-cellular organisms

including all vertebrates. They have widespread biological activities that may often be attributed to their ability to

minimize the negative consequences of free radicals. In fact, since cannabinoids (endo and exo) possess many antiaging

properties, they may be viewed as the "oil of life".

The biological effects of cannabinoids transcend many scales of organization. Cannabinoids regulate sub-cellular

biochemistry, intercellular communication, and all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immunological,

nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive, respiratory, and tegumentary). It is proposed that their emergent properties

extend to social, political, and economic phenomena. As a result of man's unprecedented impact on his surroundings,

the selective pressure on the evolutionary progression of man's endocannabinoid system has novel time constraints that

may be best met by behavioral modification. Presently, mankind is engaged in an evolutionary battle between more

primitive members of a relatively cannabinoid deficient population and those relatively more endowed. The outcome of

this genetic conflict may determine man's survival.

1. Introduction

The intent of this paper is to integrate a far from equilibrium perspective of biology, from

which emergent behavior is intrinsic, with the explosion of scientific investigations into

the endocannabinoid system. Endocannabinoids are marijuana-like compounds [Devane

et al., 1992] produced by all deuterosomes [McPartland et al., 2006]. They are believed to

have their evolutionary origins 600 million years in the past. Over the past decade and a

half, since the identification of cannabinoid receptors [Herkenham et al., 1990], research

into the cannabinoid system has grown exponentially. Major international pharmaceutical

companies are engage in cannabinoid research, and products to turn on /off the system

are in the pipeline.

2. Hypothesis

The endocannabinoid system is a global homeostatic regulator [Melamede, 2005]. The

actions of the cannabinoid system transcend the scales of organization ranging from the

sub-cellular within an organism to beyond an organisms boundary where it regulates

extra-organismic, yet population dependant, hierarchal dissipative structures such as

social, political, economic and religious systems. With such broad, multi-scaled

activities, that have evolved over 600 millions years, the cannabinoid system may

underlie evolutionary advanced phenomena. For example, it has been postulated that the

endocannabinoid system may provide the mind body link that emerges as the placebo

effect [Melamede, 2006]. Through their behavioral consequences, cannabinoids (and

potentially behavioral biochemical regulators) create a hypervariable interface between

an organism and its environment, thus linking behavior and evolution. Specifically, it is

suggested that due to man's unprecedented impact on his environment, unique demands

are placed on mans behavioral repertoire such that novel adaptive behavior is necessary

man's survival.

3. Far From Equilibrium Thermodynamics

For many years life, characterized by high levels of organization, appeared to contradict

the Second Law of Thermodynamics that states: entropy must always increase, and free

energy must decrease. The concepts developed by Illya Prigogine describe how, as long

as sufficient negative entropy flows into a far from equilibrium system, it can overcome

the intrinsically positive entropy production of an isolated system [Kondepudi and

Prigogine, 1998]. Thus entropy flow is necessary to maintain flow dependant

(dissipative) structures such as living systems. The biosphere may be viewed as the grand

dissipative structure of life with species and individuals as component dissipative

structures contained within. Similarly, as the level of magnification increases body

systems, tissues and subcellular components must have a successful far from equilibrium

entropic balance.

dST(total)/dt=dSE(exchange)/dt+dSI(internal)/dt

Homeostasis is the process by which the inputs and outputs of entropy exchange flow to

and from characteristic internal, flow dependent structures, essentially allowing them to

constantly adapt to their constantly changing environment. The survival time of an

individual/population is dependant on the rate of movement towards equilibrium as

measured by illness and ultimately, death.

3.1 Energy Flow

As energy flows through a species three categories of possibilities regarding stability are

evident:

1. a system may remain stable

2. the energy flow through a system might increase sufficiently to destabilize the

system in which case:

a. it may successfully bifurcate to a state of lower entropy (health and

fitness).

b. it may collapse to a state of higher entropy (apoptosis on a cellular scale,

illness and death).

3. there may be insufficient energy flow through a system so that it collapses, either

totally or to a lower, yet flow dependent, level of organization (apoptosis on a

cellular scale, illness and death).

4. Endocannabinoid System

The cannabinoid system is composed of ligands, receptors and ligand transporting and

degrading enzymes [Mackie and Stella, 2006]. Endocannabinoids are lipid metabolites

that bind to the cannabis receptors (CB1 and CB2). CB1 receptors, originally thought to

be mainly found in nervous tissue, have now been found in numerous other tissue types

including skin, muscle etc. In contrast, the CB2 receptors are largely limited to cells of

the immune system, but are also found in other tissues including the brain [Gong et al.,

2006]. Cannabinoids are involved in the fundamental life, death, differentiation

alternatives of cells [Guzman, 2005], and thereby extend through out the levels of

biological organization.

4.1 Evolution

A far from equilibrium perspective of the evolutionary progression of living systems

from single celled species to man may suggests successive bifurcations in which systems

became more complex so that they can more efficiently generate external entropy

[Melamede and ]. Successful feeding behavior and the passage of waste products is an

evolutionary prerequisite for the energy driven, ongoing, nonlinear rearrangements that

characterize speciation. We now know that endocannabinoids are critical homeostatic

regulators of all body systems, and perhaps most importantly of energy flow in general

[Cota et al., 2003]. The activities of cannabinoids transcend scales from sub-cellular to

organism. Thus, cannabinoids have the potential for their activities to become manifest

as a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. This concept becomes particularly

applicable when one considers the impact of the cannabinoid system on the functioning

of the brain [Fride, 2005].

Cannabinoids in the nervous system work via a novel retrograde synaptic mechanism

[Wilson et al., 2001]. Endocannabinoids are synthesized and released on demand by the

breakdown of membrane components in post-synaptic neurons. These lipid-like

molecules defuse across the synaptic cleft where they stimulate receptors on pre-synaptic

neurons where they are coupled to a variety of signal transduction pathways. The net

result of cannabinoid activity is to protect neurons from potentially harmful excessive

stimulation. This phenomenon occurs in many areas of the brain. In particular, there is a

high density of CB1 receptors in the hippocampal region of the brain where memory and

learning are regulated. The effects of cannabinoids on these functions are far reaching,

and have consequences that will be discussed below in the section on cannabinoids and

behavior.

4.2 Cannabinoids and Behavior

The effects of cannabinoids on behavior are examined by stimulating receptors, inhibiting

the receptors, or by genetically eliminating them. Additionally, there are receptor

independent biochemical pathways that cannabinoids modulate. Behavioral studies

performed with CB1 knockout mice provide important insights as to how these

compounds function. Mice deficient in CB1 receptors initially learn better than their wild

type counterparts [Bilkei-Gorzo et al., 2005]. However, as they get older, learning occurs

more efficiently in the wildtype strain. This observation suggests that when memories

are initially established, forgetting is not involved. However, as memories grow more

complex and abstract thinking emerges, forgetting old knowledge becomes an important

part of setting down new knowledge.

Experiments using a Morris water maze demonstrate the critical role that cannabinoids

play in relearning [Varvel and Lichtman, 2002]. While type and CB1 knockout mice

both learn how to solve the maze since that is how the kid out of the water. However if

the position of their platform is moved the wildtype mice readily learn to go to the new

position, whereas the CB1 knockout mice continue to return to the place that no longer

has the escaped platform. The ability of cannabinoids to regulate relearning has

important far reaching consequences that will be discussed below in the section on

politics.

CB1 knockout mice further indicate the behavioral activity of the cannabinoid system

[Zimmer et al., 1999]. Aside from increase mortality, these mice exhibit a number of

behavioral abnormalities. They show increased aggressive, anxiogenic and depressivelike

behavior and as well as anhedonia.

5 Health

A hundred years ago, the leading cause of death in America was infectious disease

(http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/lcod.htm). As public health improved and antibiotics

were developed, people lived longer. As a result, the leading causes of death today

belong to the category "age related illnesses". They included cardiovascular diseases

[Steffens et al., 2005] (heart attack (1 cause of death) and stroke (3)), neurological

diseases[Milton, 2002][Ramirez et al., 2005] [Hill and Gorzalka, 2005] (Alzheimer's

(8), depression), immune disorders (diabetes[Li et al., 2001] (6), multiple

sclerosis[Shohami and Mechoulam, 2006], Crohn's Disease[Massa and Monory, 2006]),

and cancer[Guzman, 2003] (2). (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/lcod.htm) There are

numerous peer-reviewed studies that indicate a beneficial affect on all these conditions

can result from activating the cannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system regulates

all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive [Izzo and Coutts, 2005], endocrine

[Maccarrone and Wenger, 2005], excretory [Brady et al., 2004], immunological [Carrier

et al., 2005], musculo-skeletal [Casanova et al., 2003] [Ofek et al., 2006], neurological

[Fride, 2005], tegumentary [Casanova et al., 2003], reproductive [Wang et al., 2006]),

and through these systems regulates body temperature [Hollister, 1971], food intake

[Cota et al., 2005], sleep, reproduction [Wang et al., 2006], pain [Burns and Ineck, 2006]

and mental attitude [Piomelli et al., 2006]. In fact, mice knocked out for their CB1

receptor have shortened life spans [Zimmer et al., 1999]. Therefore, in keeping with

man's evolutionary history in which endocannabinoids are found in the most

evolutionarily advanced areas of the brain, it appears that the need to extend the

cannabinoid system is still with us.

6 Politics

This section will speculate on a possible relationship between a person's cannabinoid

system and their politics by extending research findings, done largely with mice, to

humans. Furthermore it will speculate as to what behavior might emerge as the level of

cannabinoid activity rises in the population. The rise in cannabinoid activity can occur

slowly through genetic changes that effect endocannabinoid levels, or more rapidly

through the consumption of the essential fatty acid precursors to endocannabinoids, and

through marijuana consumption.

It is now known that the brain has the capacity to regenerate nerve cells, and that this

process is largely controlled by endocannabinoids [Jiang et al., 2005]. Furthermore,

regeneration is involved in neuronal plasticity and learning [Chevaleyre et al., 2006]. It is

hypothesized that people with an endocannabinoid deficiency in critical areas of the brain

will tend to look backwards in time because that view minimizes the need for re-learning.

Conversely, a robust endocannabinoid system equips an individual to adjust to the future

by controlling the reformulation of old memories and patterns of behavior as new

learning dictates.

It is self-evident that in a population there will be some who are more endowed with

endocannabinoid activity than others. The relative level of endocannabinoid activity can

vary from one tissue to another depending on an individual's genetics and environmental

history. Individuals with a relative endocannabinoid deficiency in critical areas of the

brain will have a greater tendency to agree with one and other because they have a greater

probability of looking into the past and trying to preserve the status quo. In contrast,

individuals endowed with an above average endocannabinoid system can better adjust to

the novelty of a developing situation. They will have a greater tendency to optimistically

look into the unknowns of the future because they have the adaptive biochemical

machinery.

The greater tendency for conservative consensus will tend to give the cannabinoid

deficient population greater political power. As a result, they will preferentially gather in

government (somewhat independent of political party). As a result, if this hypothesis is

true, people with relatively lower endocannabinoid activity are the same individuals who

make laws against marijuana use, even for medicinal purposes. The biological activity of

cannabinoids goes against their genetics. They make law independent of facts to the

contrary despite overwhelming scientific evidence that supports the voice of thousands

who use marijuana medicinally. For example, the FDA announcement in April of 2006

that marijuana has no medical value

7 Conclusions

Because of the broad impact that politically motivated policy has on all aspects of our

lives, the war on marijuana is actually an example of evolution in action. Mankind is

engaged in a genetic battle based on genetically defined behavioral determinants. The

ability of cannabinoids to reduce age-related illnesses, and also to regulate open

mindedness [Hill et al., 2006]emphasizes the importance of having marijuana available

for the health and survival of a population. The rapidly changing world that we live in,

with its associated possible dangers for the survival or our species (global warming,

nuclear warfare, pandemic diseases), demands that the population as a whole work

cooperatively to promote policies that are responsive in a timely manner to changes that

potentially threaten the very survival of mankind.

As the cannabinoid activity in the human population increases, what emergent behavior

might result? If humans consume essential fatty acids so that they can maximize their

endocannabinoid production, and consume appropriate amounts of supplemental

marijuana, they should became less depressed [Denson and Earleywine, 2006], more

optimistic and forward-looking, less subject to age related illnesses, suffer less pain and

become more cooperative. The dissipative structures that are our political, economic,

religious and social systems might undergo drastic character changes, perhaps for the

betterment of all.
 
 
 

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